The development of cloud technologies as a major development and deployment platform has brought new development and deployment technologies in its wake. One of these is “Cloud Containers”.
Containers are a form of lightweight, isolated, and portable application packaging that allows developers to package an application and its dependencies into a single unit. These containers can then be easily deployed and run consistently across various cloud platforms and infrastructure. Cloud containers typically refer to containers that are used within cloud computing environments.
In summary, cloud containers are a fundamental technology for modern cloud-native application development and deployment. They provide benefits such as portability, efficiency, scalability, and agility, making them a crucial component of cloud computing strategies for many organisations. Container orchestration platforms and best practices are essential for effectively managing containers in cloud environments.
Here are some key points to understand about cloud containers:
Portability: One of the primary benefits of cloud containers is their portability. Developers can build and test containers locally and then deploy them in the cloud, on-premises, or in hybrid environments without worrying about compatibility issues.
Efficiency: Containers share the host operating system’s kernel, making them more lightweight and efficient compared to traditional virtual machines. This efficiency allows for greater resource utilisation and faster startup times.
Scalability: Containers are well-suited for dynamic scaling in response to varying workloads. Cloud platforms can automatically scale containerised applications up or down based on demand.
IT Security: Security considerations for cloud containers include image scanning for vulnerabilities, runtime security monitoring, and access control to ensure that containers are not abused or compromised.
As a result, container technology has gained immense popularity for deploying and managing applications in cloud environments.
Cloud Containers and IT Security
However, using cloud containers also presents unique security challenges, especially when running in cloud environments, and especially on shared infrastructure. Here are some of the ways in which container threats in the cloud present distinct security challenges:
Shared Infrastructure: Cloud environments often involve shared infrastructure where multiple users and containers run on the same physical servers. This shared environment can introduce security risks if one container is compromised, as it could potentially affect others on the same host.
It can also impose release level and patch level restrictions on software to ensure compatibility with the underlying shared infrastructure. Cloud containers can get around this restriction.
In a shared environment, it may be an insecure third party application that introduces a vulnerability, meaning that containers need to be secure against external threats. . Containers provide a level of isolation for applications, ensuring that they do not interfere with each other. This isolation is essential for maintaining consistency and security in shared infrastructure cloud environments.
Orchestration Complexity: Container orchestration tools like Kubernetes are commonly used to manage containerised applications in the cloud. However, the complexity of these tools can lead to misconfigurations and security gaps if not properly managed. Attackers can target misconfigured containers, pods, or clusters to gain unauthorised access.
Container Image Security: Container images serve as the building blocks of containerised applications. If container images are not properly secured, they can contain vulnerabilities or malicious code that attackers can exploit. Continuous monitoring and scanning of container images for known vulnerabilities are essential.
Runtime Vulnerabilities: Containers in runtime can still be vulnerable to attacks. If an attacker gains access to a running container, they may attempt to escalate privileges, move laterally within the cluster, or launch further attacks on other containers or services.
Orchestration API Security: The APIs used by container orchestration platforms, such as Kubernetes APIs, can be targeted by attackers. Unauthorised access to these APIs can lead to control over the orchestration platform, enabling the attacker to manipulate or disrupt container deployments.
Network Security: Containers need to communicate with each other and external services over the network. Inadequate network segmentation or security policies can lead to container-to-container attacks or lateral movement within the network.
Ephemeral Nature: Containers are often short-lived and ephemeral, making it challenging to apply traditional security practices like host-based monitoring and logging. Security teams must adapt to monitor and protect dynamic containers effectively.
Container Escape Attacks: Container escape attacks involve an attacker breaking out of a container to gain access to the host or other containers on the same host. Proper container isolation and host security are critical to prevent such attacks.
Supply Chain Attacks: Container supply chain attacks involve tampering with container images at any point in their journey from development to production. These attacks can introduce malicious code or vulnerabilities into containers before they are even deployed. This could be an issue if part of the development and deployment process is outsourced.
Compliance and Visibility: Ensuring compliance with security standards and gaining visibility into containerised environments can be more challenging due to the dynamic nature of containers in the cloud. This can be significant when operating in an environment where demonstrable compliance with national or international standards and perhaps registration is required.
To address these unique security challenges, organisations need to adopt a comprehensive container IT security strategy. This includes implementing security best practices at every stage of the container lifecycle, using container security tools and solutions, regularly scanning and updating container images, and educating teams about container security best practices. Additionally, organisations should consider using cloud-native security solutions that are designed to protect containerised workloads in cloud environments.